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There are two hydrogen bonds between adenine A and thymine T and three bonds between guanine G and cytosine C.

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Therefore, in principle the more G and C in the sequence the higher temperature is needed to melt a given DNA fragment. The most commonly used method to determine the melting temperature of a PCR product is to subject the product to a temperature gradient in the presence of intercalating dye.

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The intercalating dyes are chemicals that only emit light when bound to double stranded DNA. In a typical melting experiment, a PCR product is mixed with an intercalating dye, and fluorescence emitted by this mix is monitored as the sample is slowly heated subjected to a temperature gradient. The outcome of the analysis is a curve displaying fluorescence changes emitted by the sample over the range of temperature that the sample was subjected to, commonly referred to as a melting profile Figure 1.

At the beginning of the melting experiment the temperature is low and all PCR product in the sample is double stranded. Thus, we observe high levels of florescence from the sample Figure 1 — A. We continue to observe high levels of fluorescence, as the temperature increases up to the point, where all hydrogen bonds within the PCR fragment are broken and the amount of double stranded PCR product drastically decreases. Consequently, we observe a sharp decrease in the detected fluorescence level Figure 1 — B.

At a high temperature there is no double stranded PCR product in the sample and the fluorescence levels are close to 0 Figure 1 — C. The temperature at which we observe the sharp drop in the fluorescence depends on the number of hydrogen bands in the analyzed PCR product and hence is specific to analyzed fragment.


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This type of analysis can concurrently be performed on standard RT- qPCR instrument as a majority of those instruments have built in modules that allow post-PCR melting analyses. Please contact us if you have questions about our company, our products, or general enquiries. Please use the form below.

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Skip to content. Generic selectors. Exact matches only. That makes sand, which is about 40 percent of concrete by weight, one of the most-used commodities in the world, and one that is becoming harder to come by in some regions.

Why are glaciers and sea ice melting? | Pages | WWF

But because of the erosive power of ice, there is a lot of sand in Greenland. Bendixen said. Bendixen is planning a two-year study to answer basic questions about the idea, including its feasibility and the environmental effects of extracting and exporting large amounts of the material. The government of Greenland, a self-ruled territory of Denmark, is studying it as well.

It would be up to entrepreneurs, possibly with assistance from the government, to make the idea a reality. Given the potential cost of shipping sand around the world, its feasibility would depend on the price of sand rising. Currently almost all sand is mined within 50 miles of where it is used, said Jason C.

Melting point

Willett, a minerals commodity specialist with the United States Geological Survey. A large sand-exporting industry could help reduce this subsidy, which would be critical to Greenland eventually becoming independent. Kuupik V. That explains the vast delta of sand visible from the air as well as from a research boat as the tide begins to go out. The delta, with muddy rivulets crisscrossing it, stretches to the glacier more than five miles away. Bendixen has made some hypothetical calculations. If just 15 percent of the sediment pouring into this fjord every year could be extracted, that amount of sand — 33 million tons — is twice the annual demand of San Diego County in California, one of the most populous in the United States.

Sermilik Fjord is only one of a number of places in Greenland with large amounts of sand. And the sand will keep coming as the world keeps warming and the ice sheet keeps melting. It was Dr. She had come across a trove of aerial photos of the island, taken by the American military during World War II.

Comparing them with more recent satellite images, it was obvious that deltas like the one in Sermilik Fjord were growing as the planet warmed and more meltwater came out of the ice sheet.

As the climate warms, how much, and how quickly, will Earth's glaciers melt?

Worldwide, the demand for sand and gravel is relentless and increasing. Mining, usually from open pits or by dredging, is unregulated in many areas and often illegal. A United Nations report this year noted that extraction of sand around the world is exceeding the rates by which it is replenished. Sand removal along rivers and coastal regions often leads to greater erosion and harm to ecosystems, the report said. In addition to better regulations, the report called for reducing the demand for sand and gravel through improved designs that cut the amount of concrete in buildings and infrastructure.

Lighter designs would also help address a climate change problem: Manufacturing of cement, the reactive ingredient in concrete, is responsible for about 5 percent of global emissions of carbon dioxide.

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  7. But even Nuuk has its sights on expansion. There are plans to build thousands of homes and apartments to accommodate a population that is forecast to reach 30, by This year he stockpiled extra sand, anticipating the start of the runway project. He currently has about 15, cubic yards, a small gray mountain next to the plant. It comes from a nearby fjord, sucked from the bottom by a dredge. Mike Hoegh, who owns a marine salvage business, extracts sand for use in Nuuk and other communities along the coast with his foot dredging ship, the Masik Sioraq.

    What Dr.